Forms of measurement have come a long way since the old days. In engineering there are many different ways of calculating important data about the conditions of different forms of matter such as energy and safety. New tools and sensors are devised all the time to help gauge things like electrical output, heat, and the inner workings of giant metallic structures such as bridges.
Load pins are a way of converting one form of energy into another form of energy, also referred to as a transducer. It is usually made of stainless steel and is used in commercial businesses such as offshore oil and gas. Load pins are easily used in outdoor situations and are safe for underwater use to the maximum depths of the ocean. By the same token a load cell is a way to measure an electrical signal whose weight is exactly the same as the tension being measured. Load pins and load cells use a technology called strain gauge, which, having been used successfully for 40 years, is tried and true. Strain gaging is the use of a device, the strain gauge, to measure the actual strain on an object.
Torque sensors convert terminal, machine driven, input into an electrical output signal. These, as well as load cells, are constructed in such a way as to successfully perform between temperatures of -452 degrees farenheit and 450 degrees farenheit. In order to tighten nuts and bolts to the point where they are sufficiently tight and will not loosen, a torque wrench is used. This specific tool is designed to provide the exact amount of revolutions, or twists in order to achieve the desired constraint. A torque wrench is normally a type of socket wrench containing specific mechanisms on the inside. A man named Conrad Bahr invented this tool when working for the Water Department in New York City in 1918.
In order to test the infrastructures of different metallic materials, mostly in transportation and aerospace production, an electrochemical fatigue crack sensor is used. It is able to sense subsurface cracks as small as 0.01 inches. This is a non-destructive process and is also used in the detection of cracks that could be starting in railroad bridges and highway bridges, or any bridge that has constant heavy weight rolling across its surface.